Logo Search packages:      
Sourcecode: verilator version File versions  Download package


// DESCRIPTION: Verilator: Add temporaries, such as for delayed nodes
// Code available from: http://www.veripool.org/verilator
// AUTHORS: Wilson Snyder with Paul Wasson, Duane Gabli
// Copyright 2003-2010 by Wilson Snyder.  This program is free software; you can
// redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either the GNU
// Lesser General Public License Version 3 or the Perl Artistic License
// Version 2.0.
// Verilator is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// GNU General Public License for more details.
// V3Delayed's Transformations:
// Each module:
//    Replace ASSIGNDLY var, exp
//        With   ASSIGNDLY newvar, exp
//        At top of block:  VAR  newvar
//        At bottom of block: ASSIGNW var newvar
//          Need _x_dly = x at top of active if "x" is not always set
//                For now we'll say it's set if at top of block (not under IF, etc)
//          Need x = _x_dly at bottom of active if "x" is never referenced on LHS
//                in the active, and above rule applies too.  (If so, use x on LHS, not _x_dly.)
//    If a signal is set in multiple always blocks, we need a dly read & set with
//    multiple clock sensitivities.  We have 3 options:
//        1. When detected, make a new ACTIVE and move earlier created delayed assignment there
//        2. Form unique ACTIVE for every multiple clocked assignment
//        3. Predetect signals from multiple always blocks and do #2 on them
//        Since all 3 require a top activation cleanup, we do #2 which is easiest.
// ASSIGNDLY (BITSEL(ARRAYSEL (VARREF(v), bits), selbits), rhs)
// -> VAR __Vdlyvset_x
//    VAR __Vdlyvval_x
//    VAR __Vdlyvdim_x
//    VAR __Vdlyvlsb_x
//    ASSIGNW (__Vdlyvset_x,0)
//    ...
//    ASSIGNW (VARREF(__Vdlyvval_x), rhs)
//    ASSIGNW (__Vdlyvdim_x, dimension_number)
//    ASSIGNW (__Vdlyvset_x, 1)
//    ...
//    ASSIGNW (BITSEL(ARRAYSEL(VARREF(x), __Vdlyvdim_x), __Vdlyvlsb_x), __Vdlyvval_x)
#include "config_build.h"
#include "verilatedos.h"
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdarg>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <algorithm>
#include <map>
#include <deque>

#include "V3Global.h"
#include "V3Delayed.h"
#include "V3Ast.h"
#include "V3Stats.h"

// Delayed state, as a visitor of each AstNode

class DelayedVisitor : public AstNVisitor {
    // Cleared each module:
    //  AstVarScope::user1p() -> AstVarScope*.  Points to temp var created.
    //  AstVarScope::user2p() -> AstActive*.  Points to activity block of signal
    //  AstVarScope::user4p() -> AstAlwaysPost*.  Post block for this variable
    //  AstVarScope::user5()  -> VarUsage. Tracks delayed vs non-delayed usage
    //  AstVar::user2()       -> bool.  Set true if already made warning
    //  AstVar::user4()       -> int.   Vector number, for assignment creation
    //  AstVarRef::user2()    -> bool.  Set true if already processed
    //  AstAlwaysPost::user4()      -> AstIf*.  Last IF (__Vdlyvset__) created under this AlwaysPost
    // Cleared each scope:
    //  AstAssignDly::user3() -> AstVarScope*.  __Vdlyvset__ created for this assign
    //  AstAlwaysPost::user3()      -> AstVarScope*.  __Vdlyvset__ last referenced in IF
    AstUser1InUse m_inuser1;
    AstUser2InUse m_inuser2;
    AstUser3InUse m_inuser3;
    AstUser4InUse m_inuser4;
    AstUser5InUse m_inuser5;

    enum VarUsage { VU_NONE=0, VU_DLY=1, VU_NONDLY=2 };

    // STATE
    AstActive*          m_activep;  // Current activate
    AstCFunc*           m_cfuncp;   // Current public C Function
    AstAssignDly* m_nextDlyp; // Next delayed assignment in a list of assignments
    bool          m_inDly;    // True in delayed assignments
    bool          m_inLoop;   // True in for loops
    bool          m_inInitial;      // True in intial blocks
    typedef std::map<pair<AstNodeModule*,string>,AstVar*> VarMap;
    VarMap        m_modVarMap;      // Table of new var names created under module
    V3Double0           m_statSharedSet;// Statistic tracking

    // METHODS
    static int debug() {
      static int level = -1;
      if (VL_UNLIKELY(level < 0)) level = v3Global.opt.debugSrcLevel(__FILE__);
      return level;

    void markVarUsage(AstVarScope* nodep, uint32_t flags) {
      //UINFO(4," MVU "<<flags<<" "<<nodep<<endl);
      nodep->user5( nodep->user5() | flags );
      if ((nodep->user5() & VU_DLY) && (nodep->user5() & VU_NONDLY)) {
          nodep->v3warn(BLKANDNBLK,"Unsupported: Blocked and non-blocking assignments to same variable: "<<nodep->varp()->prettyName());
    AstVarScope* createVarSc(AstVarScope* oldvarscp, string name, int width/*0==fromoldvar*/) {
      // Because we've already scoped it, we may need to add both the AstVar and the AstVarScope
      if (!oldvarscp->scopep()) oldvarscp->v3fatalSrc("Var unscoped");
      AstVar* varp;
      AstNodeModule* addmodp = oldvarscp->scopep()->modp();
      // We need a new AstVar, but only one for all scopes, to match the new AstVarScope
      VarMap::iterator iter = m_modVarMap.find(make_pair(addmodp,name));
      if (iter != m_modVarMap.end()) {
          // Created module's AstVar earlier under some other scope
          varp = iter->second;
      } else {
          if (width==0) {
            varp = new AstVar (oldvarscp->fileline(), AstVarType::BLOCKTEMP, name, oldvarscp->varp());
          } else {
            varp = new AstVar (oldvarscp->fileline(), AstVarType::BLOCKTEMP, name, AstLogicPacked(), width);
          m_modVarMap.insert(make_pair(make_pair(addmodp, name), varp));

      AstVarScope* varscp = new AstVarScope (oldvarscp->fileline(), oldvarscp->scopep(), varp);
      return varscp;

    AstNode* createDlyArray(AstAssignDly* nodep, AstNode* lhsp) {
      // Create delayed assignment
      // See top of this file for transformation
      // Return the new LHS for the assignment, Null = unlink
      // Find selects
      AstNode* newlhsp = NULL;      // NULL = unlink old assign
      AstSel*  bitselp = NULL;
      AstArraySel*  arrayselp = NULL;
      if (lhsp->castSel()) {
          bitselp = lhsp->castSel();
          arrayselp = bitselp->fromp()->castArraySel();
      } else {
          arrayselp = lhsp->castArraySel();
      if (!arrayselp) nodep->v3fatalSrc("No arraysel under bitsel?");
      if (arrayselp->length()!=1) nodep->v3fatalSrc("ArraySel with length!=1 should have been removed in V3Slice");

      UINFO(4,"AssignDlyArray: "<<nodep<<endl);
      //=== Dimensions: __Vdlyvdim__
      deque<AstNode*> dimvalp;            // Assignment value for each dimension of assignment
      AstNode* dimselp=arrayselp;
      for (; dimselp->castArraySel(); dimselp=dimselp->castArraySel()->fromp()) {
          AstNode* valp = dimselp->castArraySel()->bitp()->unlinkFrBack();
      AstVarRef* varrefp = dimselp->castVarRef();
      if (!varrefp) nodep->v3fatalSrc("No var underneath arraysels\n");
      if (!varrefp->varScopep()) varrefp->v3fatalSrc("Var didn't get varscoped in V3Scope.cpp\n");
      AstVar* oldvarp = varrefp->varp();
      int modVecNum = oldvarp->user4();  oldvarp->user4(modVecNum+1);
      deque<AstNode*> dimreadps;          // Read value for each dimension of assignment
      for (unsigned dimension=0; dimension<dimvalp.size(); dimension++) {
          AstNode* dimp = dimvalp[dimension];
          if (dimp->castConst()) { // bit = const, can just use it
          } else {
            string bitvarname = (string("__Vdlyvdim")+cvtToStr(dimension)
            AstVarScope* bitvscp = createVarSc(varrefp->varScopep(), bitvarname, dimp->width());
            AstAssign* bitassignp
                = new AstAssign (nodep->fileline(),
                             new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), bitvscp, true),
            dimreadps.push_front(new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), bitvscp, false));
      //=== Bitselect: __Vdlyvlsb__
      AstNode* bitreadp=NULL;  // Code to read Vdlyvlsb
      if (bitselp) {
          AstNode* lsbvaluep = bitselp->lsbp()->unlinkFrBack();
          if (bitselp->fromp()->castConst()) {// vlsb = constant, can just push constant into where we use it
            bitreadp = lsbvaluep;
          } else {
            string bitvarname = (string("__Vdlyvlsb__")+oldvarp->shortName()+"__v"+cvtToStr(modVecNum));
            AstVarScope* bitvscp = createVarSc(varrefp->varScopep(), bitvarname, lsbvaluep->width());
            AstAssign* bitassignp = new AstAssign (nodep->fileline(),
                                           new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), bitvscp, true),
            bitreadp = new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), bitvscp, false);
      //=== Value: __Vdlyvval__
      AstNode* valreadp;      // Code to read Vdlyvval
      if (nodep->rhsp()->castConst()) {   // vval = constant, can just push constant into where we use it
          valreadp = nodep->rhsp()->unlinkFrBack();
      } else {
          string valvarname = (string("__Vdlyvval__")+oldvarp->shortName()+"__v"+cvtToStr(modVecNum));
          AstVarScope* valvscp = createVarSc(varrefp->varScopep(), valvarname, nodep->rhsp()->width());
          newlhsp = new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), valvscp, true);
          valreadp = new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), valvscp, false);
      //=== Setting/not setting boolean: __Vdlyvset__
      bool sharedVset = false;
      AstVarScope* setvscp;

      if (nodep->user3p()) {
          // Simplistic optimization.  If the previous statement in same scope was also a =>,
          // then we told this nodep->user3 we can use its Vdlyvset rather than making a new one.
          // This is good for code like:
          //    for (i=0; i<5; i++)  vector[i] <= something;
          sharedVset = true;
          setvscp = nodep->user3p()->castNode()->castVarScope();
      } else {  // Create new one
          string setvarname = (string("__Vdlyvset__")+oldvarp->shortName()+"__v"+cvtToStr(modVecNum));
          setvscp = createVarSc(varrefp->varScopep(), setvarname, 1);
          AstAssignPre* setinitp
            = new AstAssignPre (nodep->fileline(),
                            new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), setvscp, true),
                            new AstConst(nodep->fileline(), 0));
          AstAssign* setassignp
            = new AstAssign (nodep->fileline(),
                         new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), setvscp, true),
                         new AstConst(nodep->fileline(),
      if (m_nextDlyp) {  // Tell next assigndly it can share the variable
      // Create ALWAYSPOST for delayed variable
      // We add all logic to the same block if it's for the same memory
      // This insures that multiple assignments to the same memory will result
      // in correctly ordered code - the last assignment must be last.
      // It also has the nice side effect of assisting cache locality.
      AstNode* selectsp = varrefp;
      for (int dimension=int(dimreadps.size())-1; dimension>=0; --dimension) {
          selectsp = new AstArraySel(nodep->fileline(), selectsp, dimreadps[dimension]);
      if (bitselp) {
          selectsp = new AstSel(nodep->fileline(), selectsp, bitreadp,
      // Build "IF (changeit) ...
      UINFO(9,"   For "<<setvscp<<endl);
      UINFO(9,"     & "<<varrefp<<endl);
      AstAlwaysPost* finalp = varrefp->varScopep()->user4p()->castNode()->castAlwaysPost();
      if (!finalp) {
          finalp = new AstAlwaysPost(nodep->fileline(), NULL/*sens*/, NULL/*body*/);
          UINFO(9,"     Created "<<finalp<<endl);
      AstIf* postLogicp;
      if (finalp->user3p()->castNode() == setvscp) {
          // Optimize as above; if sharing Vdlyvset *ON SAME VARIABLE*,
          // we can share the IF statement too
          postLogicp = finalp->user4p()->castNode()->castIf();
          if (!postLogicp) nodep->v3fatalSrc("Delayed assignment misoptimized; prev var found w/o associated IF");
      } else {
          postLogicp = new AstIf (nodep->fileline(),
                            new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), setvscp, false),
          UINFO(9,"     Created "<<postLogicp<<endl);
          finalp->user3p(setvscp);  // Remember IF's vset variable
          finalp->user4p(postLogicp);     // and the associated IF, as we may be able to reuse it
      postLogicp->addIfsp(new AstAssign(nodep->fileline(), selectsp, valreadp));

      return newlhsp;

    virtual void visit(AstNetlist* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      //VV*****  We reset all userp() on the netlist
    virtual void visit(AstScope* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      UINFO(4," MOD   "<<nodep<<endl);
    virtual void visit(AstCFunc* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      m_cfuncp = nodep;
      m_cfuncp = NULL;
    virtual void visit(AstActive* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      m_activep = nodep;
      bool oldinit = m_inInitial;
      m_inInitial = nodep->hasInitial();
      m_inInitial = oldinit;
    virtual void visit(AstAssignDly* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      m_inDly = true;
      m_nextDlyp = nodep->nextp()->castAssignDly();  // Next assignment in same block, maybe NULL.
      if (m_cfuncp) nodep->v3error("Unsupported: Delayed assignment inside public function/task");
      if (nodep->lhsp()->castArraySel()
          || (nodep->lhsp()->castSel()
            && nodep->lhsp()->castSel()->fromp()->castArraySel())) {
          AstNode* lhsp = nodep->lhsp()->unlinkFrBack();
          AstNode* newlhsp = createDlyArray(nodep, lhsp);
          if (m_inLoop) nodep->v3warn(E_BLKLOOPINIT,"Unsupported: Delayed assignment to array inside for loops (non-delayed is ok - see docs)");
          if (newlhsp) {
          } else {
            nodep->unlinkFrBack()->deleteTree(); nodep=NULL;
          lhsp->deleteTree(); lhsp=NULL;
      else {
      m_inDly = false;
      m_nextDlyp = NULL;
    virtual void visit(AstVarRef* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      if (!nodep->user2()) {  // Not done yet

          if (m_inDly && nodep->lvalue()) {
            UINFO(4,"AssignDlyVar: "<<nodep<<endl);
            markVarUsage(nodep->varScopep(), VU_DLY);
            if (!m_activep) nodep->v3fatalSrc("<= not under sensitivity block");
            if (!m_activep->hasClocked()) nodep->v3error("Internal: Blocking <= assignment in non-clocked block, should have converted in V3Active");
            AstVarScope* oldvscp = nodep->varScopep();
            if (!oldvscp) nodep->v3fatalSrc("Var didn't get varscoped in V3Scope.cpp\n");
            AstVarScope* dlyvscp = oldvscp->user1p()->castNode()->castVarScope();
            if (dlyvscp) {  // Multiple use of delayed variable
                AstActive* oldactivep = dlyvscp->user2p()->castNode()->castActive();
                if (!oldactivep) nodep->v3fatalSrc("<= old dly assignment not put under sensitivity block");
                if (oldactivep->sensesp() != m_activep->sensesp()) {
                  if (!nodep->varp()->fileline()->warnIsOff(V3ErrorCode::MULTIDRIVEN)
                      && !nodep->varp()->user2()) {
                      nodep->varp()->v3warn(MULTIDRIVEN,"Signal has multiple driving blocks: "<<nodep->varp()->prettyName());
                      nodep->v3warn(MULTIDRIVEN,"... Location of first driving block");
                      oldactivep->v3warn(MULTIDRIVEN,"... Location of other driving block");
                  UINFO(4,"AssignDupDlyVar: "<<nodep<<endl);
                  UINFO(4,"  Act: "<<m_activep<<endl);
                  UINFO(4,"  Act: "<<oldactivep<<endl);
                  // Make a new sensitivity list, which is the combination of both blocks
                  AstNodeSenItem* sena = m_activep->sensesp()->sensesp()->cloneTree(true);
                  AstNodeSenItem* senb = oldactivep->sensesp()->sensesp()->cloneTree(true);
                  AstSenTree* treep = new AstSenTree(m_activep->fileline(), sena);
                  if (senb) treep->addSensesp(senb);
                  if (AstSenTree* storep = oldactivep->sensesStorep()) {
            if (!dlyvscp) {  // First use of this delayed variable
                string newvarname = (string("__Vdly__")+nodep->varp()->shortName());
                dlyvscp = createVarSc(oldvscp, newvarname, 0);
                AstNodeAssign* prep
                  = new AstAssignPre (nodep->fileline(),
                                  new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), dlyvscp, true),
                                  new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), oldvscp, false));
                AstNodeAssign* postp
                  = new AstAssignPost (nodep->fileline(),
                                   new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), oldvscp, true),
                                   new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), dlyvscp, false));
                postp->lhsp()->user2(true);     // Don't detect this assignment
                oldvscp->user1p(dlyvscp);  // So we can find it later
                // Make new ACTIVE with identical sensitivity tree
                AstActive* newactp = new AstActive (nodep->fileline(), "sequentdly",
                newactp->addStmtsp(prep); // Add to FRONT of statements
            AstVarRef* newrefp = new AstVarRef(nodep->fileline(), dlyvscp, true);
            newrefp->user2(true);  // No reason to do it again
            nodep->replaceWith(newrefp); nodep->deleteTree(); nodep=NULL;
          else if (!m_inDly && nodep->lvalue()) {
            //UINFO(9,"NBA "<<nodep<<endl);
            if (!m_inInitial) {
                UINFO(4,"AssignNDlyVar: "<<nodep<<endl);
                markVarUsage(nodep->varScopep(), VU_NONDLY);

    virtual void visit(AstNodeFor* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      nodep->v3fatalSrc("For statements should have been converted to while statements in V3Begin\n");
    virtual void visit(AstWhile* nodep, AstNUser*) {
      bool oldloop = m_inLoop;
      m_inLoop = true;
      m_inLoop = oldloop;

    // Default: Just iterate
    virtual void visit(AstNode* nodep, AstNUser*) {

    DelayedVisitor(AstNetlist* nodep) {
      m_inDly = false;
      m_inLoop = false;
      m_inInitial = false;

    virtual ~DelayedVisitor() {
      V3Stats::addStat("Optimizations, Delayed shared-sets", m_statSharedSet);

// Delayed class functions

void V3Delayed::delayedAll(AstNetlist* nodep) {
    UINFO(2,__FUNCTION__<<": "<<endl);
    DelayedVisitor visitor (nodep);

Generated by  Doxygen 1.6.0   Back to index